How many piglets do sows produce throughout their lives?

In order to make pig production an increasingly profitable business, increasing productivity should be a continuous target of farms. Just like an industry is able to define the installed capacity of a plant – measuring the amount of products their equipment is able to manufacture – farms can (and should!) forecast how many piglets their sows are able to produce.

However, defining this target is still a great challenge for farm managers, particularly because they are not sure about one rather practical question: how many piglets should a sow produce throughout its life? The first step to get an answer to this question is to search for information with genetic companies, because they are able to estimate the maximum number of piglets their sows are able to produce.

This is the number that should be aimed at and, together with other factors; it will indicate the maximum productive potential of the farm. In order for this potential to be reached, indicators should not be analyzed in isolation; the analysis should rather consider the performance of the sows and its impact on production as a whole. Producers are often concerned only with getting a good ratio of pigs weaned per sow per year and a good retention rate up to the third parity. But when they cull a sow, they don’t ask how much it has produced throughout its whole productive life. Has all the genetic potential been achieved? If it could have produced 100 piglets during the period it was at the farm, but at the time it was culled you find out that it produced only 40 or 50, for example, this means that there has been a considerable waste.

The difference between what could have been produced by every sow and what was actually produced means money lost. When you have clarity about the production potential of a sow during its whole productive life, it becomes easier to identify the points of waste. Maybe the sow has produced less because of low parity rates, early culling, high mortality rate, etc.

The analysis of these and other indicators makes more sense when you know the goal to be achieved. Based on the predicted genetic performance and considering the available infrastructure, including labor and facilities, you can anticipate the maximum productive potential of your sows, the number of piglets they should produce throughout their lives, and thus set targets to achieve it.

If the goal is always to try to have lower cost and zero waste, the team should work so that all sows produce at a maximum, because unproductive sows lead to a reduction in profits. Additionally, we have to check the performance of the sows more broadly in order to better identify individual waste – that is – how much you fail to gain with every sow. This broader view is fundamental to implement the PENSAMENTO+1 process in the farm and fight waste, eliminating for good this major factor that affects pig production.

What about you? Do you already know the productive potential of the sows in your farm? Please share your experience with us!


  1. Can a pig give birth 10 times

    • Hello, Jerome!

      Yes, a sow can have 10 paritys in her lifetime, but she will hardly have a good productivity at this age. On average, a sow reaches her productive maximum in the 4st farrowing, and from there the tendency is that the production efficiency decreases with each cycle. In addition, older sows tend to give birth to more stillborns, which can generate significant effect on swine farm profitability. Besides, is important that the farm has its criteria of cullings well defined, always taking into account the technical recommendations used in the farm, and that these decisions are always based on quality information.

      If you have any questions, we are available. Thank you!

  2. My pig gave birth to one piglet. What could be the cause? And shld I sell it off or give it another chance?

    • Hello, Lydia!

      The fact that the sow has produced only one piglet can have several causes, ranging from management issues to reproductive problems. To determine whether the sow should be sold or given a new chance, it is first necessary to identify what caused the sow to produce only one piglet (whether it was a sow or farm problem) and then evaluate her production history, identifying the number of parities and the total number of piglets already produced. The decision to sell or not is managerial and will be determined by the farm’s production objective, in which the value received by each piglet sold and the cost of maintaining a low yielding sow in the herd should be considered.

      If you have any questions, we are available.

  3. My sow has given birth the fourth time now should i keep it or dispose it now ….this time round it has farrowed16 piglets and all are well. Can i have it served once more

  4. It is possible that a pig can give birth with a 20 piglets ? Or more ?

  5. My sow giving birth last month. And most of her piglets are mummified. What is the possible reason why piglets is mummified?


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